NOAA Shoreline Website

A Guide to National Shoreline Data and Terms

References

Shoreline Change | Boundary Determiniation | Cartographic Representation | Nautical Chart Production
Policy and Management | Shoreline Standards

Shoreline Change

Anders, F.J., and M.R. Byrnes. 1991. "Accuracy of Shoreline Change Rates as Determined from Maps and Aerial Photo­graphs." Shore and Beach. Volume 59. Pages 17 to 26.

Barton, C.C., J.S. Dismukes, and R.A. Morton. 2003. "Complexity Analysis of the Change in Shoreline Position at Duck, NC." Proceedings Coastal Sediments 2003. Page 7.

Byrnes, M.R., M. Crowell, and C. Fowler. 2003. "Shoreline Mapping and Change Analysis: Technical Considerations and Management Implications." Journal of Coastal Research. Special Issue 38. Follow this link to order the special issue coastal.info@noaa.gov

Camfield, F.E., and A. Morang. 1996. "Defining and Interpreting Shoreline Change." Ocean and Coastal Management. Volume 32, Number 3. Pages 129 to 151.

Crowell, M., and S.P. Leatherman, editors. 1999. "Coastal Erosion Mapping and Management." Journal of Coastal Research. Special Issue 28. Page 196.

Crowell, M., B.C. Douglas, and S.P. Leatherman. 1997. "On Forecasting Future U.S. Shoreline Positions: A Test of Algorithms." Journal of Coastal Research. Volume 13.

Crowell, M., S.P. Leatherman, and M.K. Buckley. 1991. "Historical Shoreline Change: Error Analysis and Mapping Accuracy." Journal of Coastal Research. Volume 7, Number 3. Pages 839 to 852.

Crowell, M., and M.K. Buckley. 1993. "Calculating Erosion Rates, Using Long-Term Data to Increase Data Confidence." Coastal Engineering Considerations in Coastal Zone Management. Proceedings of Coastal Zone 93, the Eighth Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management, New Orleans, LA, July 19-23, 1993. Coastlines of the World Series. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Crowell, M., S.P. Leatherman, and M.K. Buckley. 1993. "Shoreline Change Rate Analysis: Long Term vs. Short Term Data." Shore and Beach. April.

Crowell, Mark. 1995. "Mapping Shoreline Reference Features for Use in Evaluating Erosion Hazards." Coastal Zone ’95 (Extended Abstracts). Proceedings of Coastal Zone ’95, the Ninth Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management, Tampa, FL, July 16-21, 1995. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Dolan, R., B.P. Hayden, and J. Heywood. 1978. "A New Photogrammetric Method for Determining Shoreline Erosion." Coastal Engineering. Volume 2. Pages 21 to 39.

Dolan, R., B.P. Hayden, P. May, and S. May. 1980. "The Reliability of Shoreline Change Measurements from Aerial Photographs." Shore and Beach. Volume 48. Pages 22 to 29.

Douglas, B.C., and M. Crowell. 2000. "Long-Term Shore­line Position Prediction and Error Propagation." Journal of Coastal Research. Volume 16. Pages 145 to 152.

Harris M., J. Brock, A. Nayegandhi, and M. Duffy. 2005. "Extracting Shorelines from NASA Airborne Topographic Lidar-Derived Digital Elevation Models." Open-File Report 2005-1427. U.S. Geological Survey. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1427/ofr-2005-1427.pdf.

Leatherman, S.P. 1983. "Shoreline Mapping: A Comparison of Techniques." Shore and Beach. Volume 51. Pages 28 to 33.

Moore, L., P. Ruggiero, and J. List. 2006. "Comparing Mean High Water and High Water Line Shorelines: Should Proxy-Datum Offsets Be Incorporated in Shoreline Change Analysis?" Journal of Coastal Research. Volume 22, Number 4. Pages 894 to 905.

Moore, L.J. 2000. "Shoreline Mapping Techniques." Journal of Coastal Research. Volume 16. Pages 111 to 124.

Morton, R.A. 1991. "Accurate Shoreline Mapping: Past, Present, and Future." American Society of Civil Engineers, Coastal Sediments. Volume 1. Pages 997 to 1010.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2000. "Shoreline Assessment Manual." Third Edition. HAZMAT Report 2000-1. Seattle, WA: NOAA Office of Response and Restoration. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/oil-and-chemical-spills/oil-spills/resources/shoreline-assessment-manual.html.

NOAA Office for Coastal Management.2006. Shoreline Change Conference II: a Workshop on Managing Shoreline Change: proceedings. Charleston, SC, May 3-5, 2006. http://www.coast.noaa.gov/shoreconf/

Pajak, M.J., and S.P. Leatherman. 2002. "The High Water Line as Shoreline Indicator." Journal of Coastal Research. Volume 18. Pages 329 to 337.

Ruggiero, P., G.M. Kaminsky, and G. Gelfenbaum. 2003. "Linking Proxy-Based and Datum-Based Shorelines on a High-energy Coastline: Implications for Shoreline Change Analyses." Journal of Coastal Research. Special Issue 38. Pages 57 to 82.

Sallenger, A.H., W. Krabill, R. Swift, J. Brock, J. List, M. Hansen, R.A. Holman, S. Manizade, J. Sontag, A. Meredith, K. Morgan, J.K. Yunkel, E. Frederick, and H. Stockdon. 2003. "Evaluation of Airborne Scanning Lidar for Coastal Change Applications." Journal of Coastal Research. Volume 19. Pages 125 to 133.

Smith, G.L., and G.A. Zarillo. 1990. "Calculating Long-Term Shoreline Recession Rates Using Aerial Photographic and Beach Profiling Techniques." Journal of Coastal Research. Volume 6, Number 1. Pages 111 to 120.

Stafford, D.B. 1971. "An Aerial Photographic Technique for Beach Erosion Surveys in North Carolina." U.S. Coastal Engineering Research Center Technical Memorandum. Number 36. Page 115.

Stockdon, H.F., A.H. Sallenger, J.H. List, and R.A. Holman. 2002. "Estimation of Shoreline Position and Change from Airborne Topographic Lidar Data." Journal of Coastal Research. Volume 18. Pages 502 to 513.

Swanson, L. 1973. Topographic Manual Part II. Special Publ. No. 249, USC&GS, DOC. 1949. Manual of Surveying Instructions, Technical Bulletin 6, BLM, DOI. (55.3). Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://www.shoreline.noaa.gov/docs/83d48c.pdf

Thieler, E.R., E.A. Himmelstoss, J.L. Zichichi, and T.L. Miller. 2005. "Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) Version 3.0: An ArcGIS Extension for Calculating Shore­line Change." Open-File Report 2005-1304. U.S. Geological Survey. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1304/.

Thieler, E.R., and W.W. Danforth. 1994. "Historical Shore­line Mapping (1). Improving Techniques and Reducing Positioning Errors." Journal of Coastal Research. Volume 10. Pages 549 to 563.

Weber, K.M., J.H. List, and K.M. Morgan. 2005. "An Opera­tional Mean High Water Datum for Determination of Shore­line Position from Topographic Lidar Data." Open-File Report 2005-1027. U.S. Geological Survey.Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/ofr/ofr20051027.

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Boundary Determination

Brisco, J. 1983. “The Use of Tidal Datums in the Law.” Surveying and Mapping Vol. 43 No. 2. American Society of Surveying and Mapping. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://www.shoreline.noaa.gov/docs/8d588e.pdf.

Cole, George M. 1997. Water Boundaries. Wiley Series in Surveying and Boundary Control. John Wiley and Sons.

Coastal States Organization. 1997. Putting the Public Trust Doctrine to Work - The Application of the Public Trust Doctrine to the Management of Lands, Waters and Living Resources of the Coastal States. Coastal States Organization, Washington, D.C.  Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://www.shoreline.noaa.gov/docs/8d5885.pdf.

Cravat, H.R., and R.K. Brewer. 1972. "Baseline Establishment for Positioning Federal State Offshore Boundaries." Proceedings of 4th Annual Offshore Technological Conference, Houston, TX, May 1 to 3, 1972. Marine Technology Society. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://www.shoreline.noaa.gov/docs/8d588c.pdf.

Ellis, M.Y. 1978. Coastal Mapping Handbook. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Department of Commerce, National Ocean Service and Office of Coastal Zone Management, U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C.

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC), Marine Boundaries Working Group (MBWG). 2006. Marine Managed Areas: Best Practices for Boundary Making. Charleston, SC: NOAA Office for Coastal Management. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://www.coast.noaa.gov/products/mb_handbook/MMA_Boundaries_Handbook.pdf.

Harrington, C.E. 1993. "Maritime Boundaries on National Ocean Service Nautical Charts." Cartographic Perspectives: Bulletin of the North American Cartographic Information Society. Number 14, Winter 1993.

Hicks, S.D. 1984 et seq. Tide and Current Glossary. NOAA/National Ocean Service. Rockville, MD. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://www.opsd.nos.noaa.gov/tideglos.html.

Hicks, S.D. 1985. “Tidal Datums and Their Uses - A Summary.” Shore and Beach, Volume 53, Number 1. Pages 27 to 32. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://www.shoreline.noaa.gov/docs/8d5888.pdf.

International Hydrographic Organization. 1994.  Hydrographic Dictionary. Special Publication Number 32, Fifth Edition.

International Hydrographic Organization. 1993. A Manual on Technical Aspects of the United Nations Convention on The Law of the Sea – 1982. Special Publication Number 51, 3rd Edition, July 1993.

Johnson, J.W. 1971. "The Significance of Seasonal Beach Changes in Tidal Boundaries." Shore and Beach. Volume 39, Number 1. Pages 26 to 31.

Maloney, F.E., and R. Ausness. 1974. “The Use and Legal Significance of the Mean High Water Line in Coastal Boundary Mapping.” North Carolina Law Review. Volume 53, Number 2.  Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://www.shoreline.noaa.gov/docs/8d5878.pdf.

Maloney, F.E. 1978. “The Ordinary High Water Mark: Attempts at Setting an Unsettled Boundary Line.” Law and Water Law Review. University of Wyoming. Volume XIII, Number 2. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://www.shoreline.noaa.gov/docs/8d5889.pdf.

Marmer, H. A. 1951. Tidal Datum Planes. Special Publication Number 135, USC&GS, DOC. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://www.shoreline.noaa.gov/docs/8d5887.pdf.

Morton, R.A., and F.M. Speed. 1998. "Evaluation of Shore­lines and Legal Boundaries Controlled by Water Levels on Sandy Beaches." Journal of Coastal Research. Volume 14. Pages 1373 to 1384.

NOAA Special Publication NOS CO-OPS 1. 2000. Tidal Datums and Their Applications.  U.S. Department of Commerce.  Silver Spring, MD.  Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/publications/tidal_datums_and_their_applications.pdf.

Phillips, J.O. 1971. "Coastal Boundary Services." International Hydrographic Review. Volume XLVII, Number 1.

Reed, M.W. 2000. Shore and Sea Boundaries: Volume 3, The Development of International Maritime Boundary Principles through United States Practice. U.S. Department of Commerce and U.S. Department of the Interior. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://chartmaker.ncd.noaa.gov/hsd/shallow.htm.

Robbins, J.M., and M.J. Hershman. 1974. "Boundaries of the Coastal Zone: A Survey of State Laws." Coastal Zone Management Journal. Volume 1, Number 3. Pages 305 and 331.

Shalowitz, A.L., 1962. Shore and Sea Boundaries: Volume 1, Boundary Problems Associated with the Submerged Lands Cases and the Submerged Lands Acts. U.S. Department of Commerce Publication 10-1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://chartmaker.ncd.noaa.gov/hsd/shallow.htm.

Shalowitz, A.L., 1964. Shore and Sea Boundaries: Volume 2, Interpretation and Use of Coast and Geodetic Survey Data. U.S. Department of Commerce Publication 10-1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://chartmaker.ncd.noaa.gov/hsd/shallow.htm.

Van Zandt, F.K. 1976. "Boundaries of the United States and the Several States." U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 909. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

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Cartographic Representation

Michel, J. and Byron, I. 1997. Shoreline Assessment Manual. NOAA National Ocean Service. Seattle, WA. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://www.shoreline.noaa.gov/docs/8d58a3.pdf

The National Academies, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources (BESR) and Earth and Life Studies (ELS). 2006. "Beyond Mapping: Meeting National Needs through Enhanced Geographic Information Science." National Academies Press. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11687.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2006. "Environmental Sensitivity Index Mapping". NOAA Office of Response and Restoration. Accessed April 8, 2008 at http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/book_shelf/827_esi.pdf

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Nautical Chart Production

Mills, G.B. 1998. "International Hydrographic Survey Standards."  NOAA Office of Coast Survey. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://chartmaker.ncd.noaa.gov/hsd/ihr-s44.pdf.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and U.S. Department of Defense. 1997. "Nautical Chart Symbols, Abbreviations and Terms." Chart Number 1, 10th Edition. Washington, D.C.: Department of Commerce. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://nauticalcharts.noaa.gov/mcd/chart1/chart1hr.htm.

Reed, M.W. 2000. Shore and Sea Boundaries: Volume 3, The Development of International Maritime Boundary Principles through United States Practice. U.S. Department of Commerce and U.S. Department of the Interior. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://chartmaker.ncd.noaa.gov/hsd/shallow.htm.

Shalowitz, A.L., 1962. Shore and Sea Boundaries: Volume 1, Boundary Problems Associated with the Submerged Lands Cases and the Submerged Lands Acts. U.S. Department of Commerce Publication 10-1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://chartmaker.ncd.noaa.gov/hsd/shallow.htm.

Shalowitz, A.L., 1964. Shore and Sea Boundaries: Volume 2, Interpretation and Use of Coast and Geodetic Survey Data. U.S. Department of Commerce Publication 10-1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://chartmaker.ncd.noaa.gov/hsd/shallow.htm.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). 2002. Engineering and Design: Hydrographic Surveying. Engineer Manual-1110-2-1003. Washington, D.C.: USACE. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://www.usace.army.mil/publications/eng-manuals/em1110-2-1003/toc.htm.

U.S. Department of Commerce. 1976. Hydrographic Manual. Fourth Edition. "Chapter 3.2, Shoreline Surveys." Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Wells, D., A. Kleusberg, and P. Vanicek. 1996. "A Seamless Vertical Reference Surface for Acquisition, Management and ECDIS Display of Hydrographic Data." Technical Report 179. Produced for the Canadian Hydrographic Survey. Department of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, University of New Brunswick. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://gge.unb.ca/Research/GRL/GeodesyGroup/Publication/documents/A%20seamless%20vertical-referance%20surface.pdf.

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Policy and Management

Brisco, John. 1983. "The Use of Tidal Datums in the Law." Surveying and Mapping.Volume 43, Number 2. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://www.shoreline.noaa.gov/docs/8d588e.pdf. 

Coastal States Organization. 1997. Putting the Public Trust Doctrine to Work: The Application of the Public Trust Doctrine to the Management of Lands, Waters and Living Resources of the Coastal States. Washington, D.C.: Coastal States Organization. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://www.shoreline.noaa.gov/docs/8d5885.pdf.

Graber, P.H.F. The Law of the Coast in a Clamshell. Parts I to XXVI. Published between October 1980 and April 1989. Shore and Beach. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://www.shoreline.noaa.gov/docs/8d588a.pdf.

Michel, J., S. Christopherson, and F. Whipple. 1994. Mechanical Protection Guidelines. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Coast Guard National Strike Force, and Research Planning Inc, Columbia, SC. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/book_shelf/893_Mechanical.pdf.

Marine Law Institute. 1988. "Managing the Shoreline for Water Dependent Uses: A Handbook of Legal Tools." University of Maine School of Law in association with Land Use Group., Robinson and Cole. Prepared for the New England/New York Coastal Zone Task Force. Portland, ME: Marine Law Institute.

Phillips, J.O. 1971, 1997. (In Draft) "The National Coastal Zone Management Effectiveness Study." Coastal Zone '97 Conference Boston, MA.

Schoenbaum, T.J. 1972. "Public Rights and Coastal Zone Management." The North Carolina Law Review. Volume  51, Number 1.

U.S. Department of Commerce. 1983. Annotated Bibliography of Coastal Zone Management Work Products. Washington, D.C.: Department of Commerce. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://www.shoreline.noaa.gov/docs/8d5886.pdf.

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Shoreline Standards

Byrnes, M.K., R. McBride, and M. Hiland. 1991. "Accuracy Standards and Development of a National Shoreline Change Data Base." Coastal Sediments '91. Proceedings of speciality Conference, Water Resources Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, Seattle, WA, June 1991. Pages 1027 to 1042. (Note: Bibliography contains 36 references to additional technical papers and reports.)

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC). 2001. "Shoreline Metadata Profile of the Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata." FGDC-STD-001.2-2001. Reston, Virginia: FGDC. Accessed April 4, 2008, at http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/metadata/shoreline-metadata/index_html/?searchterm=shoreline%20profile.

National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA). 1997. "The United States Imagery and Geospatial System Data Model." Volume 4, Nautical. Bethesda, MD: NIMA Standards and Interoperability Division.

Tri-Service CADD/GIS. 1996. "GIS Spatial Data Standards." Vicksburg, MS: Department of Defense, Tri-Service Technology Center.

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